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                        今天是2019年3月12日 星期二

                        當前位置: 首頁 >> 語文資源 > 教育理論 > 前沿觀點 > 教育使我們富有,文學使我們高貴  文學滋養心靈,教育培養智慧
                        宋勝杰:做個會講故事的孩子——敘事加感悟 2019-03-12 09:12:58  發布者:麗榮  來源:本站

                        有一次,到蛟河市為老師們做培訓。

                        因為急著趕路沒吃午飯,當地的同行就買了些吃的。上課的時候,老師見我沒法吃這些東西,就把飲料奶打開,送到了臺上。我喝了一口,說:“謝謝,謝謝關心,很溫馨!”

                        頓了一下,我接著說:“這令我想到了我的嬰兒時代!”一些老師笑起來。

                        “我在我們家是斷奶最晚的一個孩子。”更多的人笑起來。

                        “當然走路也是最晚的。

                        “現在回想起來。大概因為我是老大,爺爺、奶奶、姥爺,特別是我的母親,都包容我,不舍得斷我的奶。他們每天輪流抱著我,讓我對呵護產生了依賴。現在我還有一個模糊的記憶:在父親懷里我用兩只小腳蹬著他褲帶的情形。

                        “這可能是我走路晚,斷奶晚的原因。我妹妹小的時候走路就比較早,斷奶也早,因為她是老二,家里又有重男輕女的傳統。

                        “現在看來,那些受到關照和愛護比較多的孩子,獨立的能力發展得也晚一些。所以,得到的照顧越多,孩子的能力相應地發展得也越晚。可見,愛護和關照,于人的成長未必是件好東西!

                        “這讓我想到了我們的教育:我們總是不肯讓孩子斷奶,自己走路。我們必須清醒地認識到,真正的關心和愛護是放手。

                        “你看,今天我們講的是寫作教學。嬰兒和幼兒時代的事情我還記得。今年七月在北京,作為‘文心雕龍杯’的決賽評委,我有個發言,題目就是《每一個孩子都有一只裝故事的盒子》。主要的意思是說每個孩子都是有故事的,所以,不要武斷地認定孩子沒的可寫。孩子們把故事分裝在不同的盒子里:有的盒子里裝著童年時候的故事,有的盒子里裝著他們少年時候的故事;有在家里發生的故事,也有在外面發生的故事;有看到的故事,也有聽來的故事,還有讀到的故事;有的盒子里裝著快樂,而有的盒子裝著憂郁——總之,每個人都是有故事的。

                        “要把這些故事分享給大家,需要克服幾個障礙:一是心理障礙。把自己的故事講給別人聽首先要克服的是心理障礙。因此,這些故事里不光有自己得意的事,光彩的事,還有自己的糗事,不光彩的事;你得引導孩子信任這個世界,愿意和大家分享。二是選料和加工。孩子十幾年的人生經歷了,哭也哭過,樂也樂過,委屈也委屈過,友好和疏離,愛與憎,都是他們的故事。文學不僅和人的精神世界有關,也和人的情感世界有關,怎么可以說孩子沒的可寫呢!

                        “有一種寫作,是敘事加感悟。你看,我嬰兒和幼兒時代的故事,今天我都能說得出來,而且經過歲月的淘洗,一些認識、思考、感悟像玉石一樣透出光澤,只欠一個用文字表達出來的過程。說出來,就是口頭表達;而寫出來,這個過程就是寫作。這是一個挖掘自身經歷的過程,也是提煉思想和感悟生活的過程,可以作為我們寫作實踐的開始。

                        寫這類文字的目的是傳遞思想和情感,而寫作的關鍵是人對世界或事物的認知和與之匹配的某種情感,因此,寫作教學中應把“點石成金”,即感悟能力作為練習的一個要點。

                         

                        (作者:宋勝杰,吉林省教科院初中教研培訓部副主任,校園文學委員會學術委員

                         

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