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                        今天是2019年4月11日 星期四

                        當前位置: 首頁 >> 文學金閣 > 中外名家 > 華文名家 > 教育使我們富有,文學使我們高貴  文學滋養心靈,教育培養智慧
                        高洪波:課本里的文學初心 2019-04-11 14:45:52  發布者:麗榮  來源:人民日報

                        不久前云南舉辦一次以小學課本為研討內容的會議,邀我參加,我欣然應允。原因有二,云南是我青春寄宿地,從十七歲到二十七歲的十年間,我在云南宜良一處叫作“大荒田”的軍營度過,此次行前為云南諸多戰友寫一小詩:“曾為十載滇云客,夢中常回舊軍營。滄桑歲月人未老,最憶濃濃戰友情。”此番故地重游,內心自然欣喜。其二是此次研討內容是小學課本,更切中我的心意。

                        我感念小學語文課本,那是我文學初心的萌生地。

                        小學語文課本,常是文學種子生根發芽的土壤。尤其是對我這樣一個五〇后背景的作家而言。它不肥沃,但足夠一個熱愛文學或者寫作的孩子扎下靈感與熱愛的根須;它不深厚和寬廣,但足夠開拓一個文學幼童稚嫩的視野;它有那個特定年代的體現,譬如我就曾吃力地背誦過課本中的“農業八字憲法”,至今印象鮮明,可以毫不費力地脫口而出:“土、肥、水、種、密、保、管、工。”

                        我不知道農業生產上這八字如今還好不好使,但至少當時讓我這樣一個剛上學的小學生花了不少苦功。背誦需要記憶,記憶依靠理解和領會,可我當時實在理解不了其中的奧秘,這本應是從事農業工作人員的專業,不知為何闖入小學生語文課本。這讓當時二年級的我背得焦頭爛額,還因錯了一兩個字而被老師批評得垂頭喪氣。于是我決心發憤圖強,進行強迫記憶,結果便是直至今天,我依然能條件反射般背出這些內容。

                        有些人覺得小學語文課本作為基礎性、通識性文本,主要承擔的是認字識文的價值。這是片面的看法。從我自身的學習經歷、后來的創作經歷看,我認為文學作品在語文課本中的價值至少有如下幾種:認知價值、審美價值、拓展價值和浸潤價值。

                        學子面對課本,本身認知是題中應有之意,從孔夫子時代到今天,課本的首要任務是啟愚蒙開混沌,從教育學到心理學都對此有專門論述,語文課本的認知價值無需多論。

                        語文課本上大多數的課文都出自名家名著,我記得郭沫若先生的《天上的街市》是如何讓我驚艷神往,也記得賀敬之先生的《桂林山水歌》又如何讓一個北方草原的孩子對南國山水充滿憧憬,更妙的是楊朔先生的《荔枝蜜》色香味俱全的文筆,讓人口水長流,他所引用蘇東坡名句“日啖荔枝三百顆,不辭長作嶺南人”又如何令人驚詫莫名,特別是一個“啖”字,既不是吃,也不是咬,更不是嚼或吞,古趣橫生,發人深省!“啖”,在宋是通用語,到今天已成語言化石,一粒硬邦邦卻韻味十足的化石,觸發人諸多聯想。

                        是小學語文課本讓我知道了新詩與舊詩,知道了押韻在語言中的妙不可言的趣味,也知道了魏巍《誰是最可愛的人》中把炒面和雪一起吞服的人的偉大,知道了羅盛教、劉胡蘭、黃繼光,知道了小英雄雨來和王二小,知道了“雞毛信”與“狼牙山五壯士”,這是幼童審美,也是立志與價值觀教育。

                        小學生大多活動空間狹小,視野局限于“家庭—學校—家庭”之中,小學語文課本的教材內容應負有開拓孩子視野、拓展認知空間的責任,科幻、科普及相關的課文,如《我們的土壤媽媽》(高士其)就起到了很好的豐富知識、拓展視野的作用。記得還有趙樹理先生的《手》,寫一個山西農民的手:粗短,有力,布滿老繭,隨便在土里一抓,便是一把干柴……細節栩栩如生,人物個性鮮明,文中充滿一個知識分子對勞動人民的尊重,傳奇性中見平凡與真誠。

                        而尤為重要的,是浸潤價值。它是潛移默化和潤物細無聲的教誨,是言傳身教的深切表達,是大音希聲、大象無形的傳遞和承繼。要做到這一點,語文課本固然重要,同樣重要的是授業執教者的修養、素養和教養應與語文課本熔鑄一體,方可達到“浸潤”孩子身心的作用。所以一堂語文課,如果課文好而老師理解不到位,講得不好,肯定是不成功;相反,如果課文平平而語文老師理解充沛、發揮超長,則是學生的幸事。這一點至關重要。

                        好老師,好課文,好好相輔,語文課很可能成為一個孩子萌生文學初心的沃土,未來作家的始發地。這是一個有幸有作品進入小學語文課本的中國作家的心里話!“荷衣說藝斗心兵,前輩須眉照座清。收拾遺聞歸一派,百年終恃小門生。”這是一百八十年前的清人龔自珍《己亥雜詩》中的一首。大家都熟悉他的“我勸天公重抖擻,不拘一格降人才”,其實前一首也很有見地。他尊崇前輩,獎掖后生,“百年終恃小門生”,我認為此句放在教育界、教材界亦妥。希望新時代的教育發展,出好教材,辦好教育,以明德引領風尚,用課本培育初心,為中華民族的偉大復興貢獻我們應有的力量。

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