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                        今天是2019年2月27日 星期三

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                        葉兆言:有了大運河這一捺,中國“人”字就站住了 2019-02-27 09:14:11  發布者:  來源:文匯報


                         

                        ◆在中國的大歷史上,萬里長城是“人”字的一撇,而大運河則是“人”字的一捺,有了這一撇一捺,中國人就站住了。

                        ◆有一種流行說法,就是大運河的第一鍬,是春秋時期的吳王夫差開挖的。當年的江南,水網四通八達,吳國軍隊要想遠征,要想逐鹿中原,就要考慮如何將長江與淮河溝通。在古代,這是非常不容易辦到的事情,只能更多地利用自然河道,多繞點路。

                        過去的多少年,我無數次地經過大運河,也領略過江南地域的大運河風光。

                        比如,大運河流經的揚州、蘇州等名城中,揚州人和蘇州人都很會過日子,都積淀了豐富的文化。這兩個有著悠久歷史同時又非常適合人居的古城,城市規模都不太大,民風溫柔,生活悠閑。如果說它們還有某些不相同的話,那就是蘇州處于和平的歲月居多,千百年來和揚州相比,處于戰亂的日子要少得多,受到的傷害也少得多。

                        不管怎么說,修大運河的功都遠遠大于過。唐詩人皮日休甚至把隋煬帝修運河,與大禹治水相提并論。

                        地處江淮之間的揚州古城并不是什么軍事要塞,然而這個城市的建設,從一開始就與軍事企圖緊密相連。在蘇州開始建城的28年以后,也就是公元前486年春秋時期,野心勃勃的吳王夫差為了北上伐齊,開挖了一條邗溝。

                        有一種流行說法,就是大運河的第一鍬,是吳王夫差開挖的。當年的江南,水網四通八達,吳國軍隊要想遠征,逐鹿中原,就要考慮如何將長江與淮河溝通。在古代,這是一件非常不容易辦到的事情,只能更多地利用自然河道,多繞點路,多繞很多路。因此,最初的河道,東自太湖出發,沿胥溪西上,直到今天的蕪湖附近,才能進入長江,再渡過長江往北,沿柵水到巢湖一帶,然后北入淮水。

                        千萬別小看了這條古運河邗溝,在此之前,長江和淮河并不相通,那時候的軍隊要走水路,連接江淮的唯一途徑,便是出長江繞海進入淮河,這得要繞很大的一個彎子。因為有了邗溝,行程大大地被節省了,同時,在半路上也有了一個城池邗城,根據專家的觀點,這個古邗城就是揚州的前身。

                        夫差為了北進中原爭霸,無意中發展了這一地區的經濟文化和航運交通。從此一直到漢代,當時的江蘇境內,江南最大的城市是蘇州,江北最大的城市是揚州,那時候的南京還算不上什么。然后越滅吳,然后楚滅越,勝利的楚國給揚州起了個名字叫“廣陵”,就像它給南京的賜名“金陵”一樣。

                        后來,隋煬帝楊廣又在古邗溝的基礎上,花了六年,挖掘了著名的京杭大運河。不管怎么說,修大運河的功都遠遠大于過。唐詩人皮日休甚至把隋煬帝修運河,與大禹治水相提并論,“盡道隋亡為此河,至今千里賴通波,若無水殿龍舟事,共禹論功不較多”。清朝的一位史學家也說,吳國和隋朝的開挖運河,雖然是“輕用民力”,但是后人的享用無窮無盡,他引用了戰國時西門豹的話:“今天你們恨我怨我,百年以后你們想念我都來不及!”

                        大運河以洛陽為中心,北起涿郡,也就是今天的北京,南至余杭,也就是今天的杭州,在江蘇境內長約690公里,不僅從南到北貫通了江蘇全省,且四通八達,成了江蘇與全國各地聯系的大動脈。大運河依次流經江蘇的徐州、宿遷、淮安、揚州、鎮江、常州、無錫、蘇州八市,所經流域大約占了全省的三分之二。

                        江蘇現有各類地面文化遺存近萬處,這些重要遺存相當一部分位于運河沿線。大運河顛覆了江蘇從前作為邊遠省份的地區形象,它所帶來的好處顯而易見。有人說,在中國的大歷史上,萬里長城是“人”字的一撇,而大運河則是“人”字的一捺,有了這一撇一捺,中國人就站住了。

                        如今,大運河的水上立交可以讓水在不同水位,按照人的意愿流向不同方向。

                        時至今日,大運河對于江蘇的經濟發展,仍然起著十分重要的作用——和歷史上繁忙的江南漕運已有所不同,現在再也不是用船把糧食和財富源源不斷地運往北方,而是把大量的煤炭和建筑材料送到南方。近十年前,如果沒有運河運輸煤炭,華東地區的能源就會出現問題,而建筑材料則滿足了快速發展的許多南方城市建設新城區的需要。運河的總運輸量相當于兩條京滬鐵路加一條京滬高速公路的總運輸量,運輸成本比鐵路和公路運輸都要便宜,這一點如果不加以說明,一般人恐怕做夢都不會想到,因為現在出門,走水路的機會已經越來越少。

                        比如,淮安的命運與運河息息相關,在運河沿線,像淮安這樣一味依賴運河生存的城市,可以說是絕無僅有。連接五大水系的大運河全長約1794公里,淮安以“九省通衢”的咽喉要地,獨占沿線城市的鰲頭。很多人想不明白為什么要在這設置那么多的機構,其實只要還原一下歷史場景,就不難理解淮安當年繁華的真正原因。地處淮河中下游的淮安位于蘇北腹地,東接鹽城,西鄰安徽,南毗揚州,北方被連云港和宿遷包圍,因為處在淮河與大運河的交接點上,“湖廣、江西、浙江、江南之糧艘,銜尾而至”,這里是國家的經濟命脈。事實上,如果大運河真的暢通無阻,淮安的重要性就會大打折扣,問題的關鍵是自從黃河改道奪淮之后,運河的梗阻就越來越厲害。

                        明清時期的商人由南而北,到了淮安,一般都是在清江浦的石碼頭舍舟登陸,北渡黃河,到王家營去換乘馬車,由北而南正好反過來,必須棄車馬過黃河,到石碼頭登舟揚帆,這就是所謂的 “南船北馬”,或又叫“南楫北轅”。因為這樣的行旅方式,當時的淮安旅館特別多,譬如在王家營,街道兩旁旅店櫛比,如果趕上秋闈會試,平時做其他營生的居民也紛紛把住宅改成臨時旅店,收入可觀。車騾廠也多,有記載說,自清真寺以南至黃河大堤,有轎車廠100多家,有48家大車廠,還有七八家騾廠,這些車騾廠皆有鑣師保證旅客安全,鑣師們個個武藝高強,馳名北道。每到凌晨千車齊發,聲聞數里,川流不息,是一道很壯麗的景觀。

                        多少年來,淮安人為了治淮,在水利工程方面做出了卓絕貢獻。被稱為“水上長城”的高家堰大堤,古稱“捍淮堰”,可追溯到公元199年。人們漫步在這與長城媲美的大壩上,欣賞著湖光十色,不能不感嘆淮安人1800多年的奮斗歷史。

                        如今,大運河的水上立交可以讓水在不同水位,按照人的意愿流向不同方向。這里的水利樞紐是國內最壯觀的水利工程之一,充分體現了淮安人的智慧,在不到三平方公里的范圍內,有近30座大型水利工程建筑,密集度如此之高實屬罕見。

                        江淮之水在這里重新分配,可以北上,可以南下,澇可排旱可灌,長江淮河大運河蘇北灌溉總渠被串通起來,洪澤湖白馬湖高郵湖等水系也因此連成一片……

                        (作者為著名作家)

                         

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