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                        今天是2018年8月10日 星期五

                        當前位置: 首頁 >> 語文資源 > 教學探索 > 寫作教學 > 教育使我們富有,文學使我們高貴  文學滋養心靈,教育培養智慧
                        葉圣陶杯新作文大賽評委回答你:什么樣的作文題目是好的 2018-08-10 14:54:55  發布者:丁毅  來源:本站

                        作為一個語文老師,經常被問到這樣一個問題:什么樣的作文題是“好”的?或者當我們評說一個作文題是“好”的同時,經常也在反思:憑什么說這個作文題是“好”的,依據是什么?其實每一個語文老師都應該回答這個問題,或許每一個學生也應該思考這個問題,因為與我們每一天的切身教育有關。

                        在我看來,判斷的標準其實很簡單。至少有三條:

                        第一條,作文題既要出得出乎意料,又要在情理之中。做到“出乎意料之外”,就不可能被猜中,被宿構,被套用,就能做到讓考生在同一起跑線上起跑,就能做到公平合理。要知道,人都是有功利心的,總有些學生會事先做些準備,這不奇怪,也無可厚非;要緊的是,我們的作文題要盡量做到不讓學生投機,至少不讓他們產生投機期待。所謂“在情理之中”,就是指作文題要出到學生心坎里,要能引爆學生的思維火花,激發他們的聯想和想象,能喚醒他們對熟視無睹的生活進行重新打量。這就要求題目直觀與理性并舉,直觀就是能輕易入題,審題沒難度,不彎彎繞;理性就是細想想,又沒有那么好寫,要寫好頗要費一點思量。要讓淺者得其淺,深者得其深,要照顧到不同的個性需求。

                        第二條,好的作文題一定能對現實的作文教學具有良好的導向作用,并且避免讓自己“中槍”。要知道,我們的老師、家長和學生,為了一篇應試作文或競賽作文,一定會廣泛閱讀大量的“優秀作文”,他們試圖從這些范本中,總結出若干“作文法典”。這也不奇怪,也無可厚非,要緊的是,我們要通過“好”的作文題,告訴人們,寫作文就是老老實實地把自己的所思所感寫出來,把自己的真情實感和真知灼見寫出來——我曾把這個稱之為“二真作文”。如此一來,才可能寫出一篇好作文。所以,在“出乎意料之外”和“又在情理之中”的基礎上,還必須讓作文題負有使命感和責任意識,讓它起到撬動作文教學的杠桿的作用。

                        在我們的作文現實中,有少數老師除了教學生寫作“這一篇應試作文”外——準確地說,就是寫一篇“議論文”,就沒有教過其他的作文樣式了,什么小說、散文、隨筆、雜感、小品文、想象作文……等等,統統難以進入他們的法眼,因為高考“不考”!可是高考真的“不考”嗎?2018年,北京卷,考“綠水青山圖”,要求學生發揮想象,想象我們的國家、我們的家鄉經過若干年的艱辛治理,終于變好了,該是什么樣子。這是一篇考想象的作文。無獨有偶,2018年全國一卷,要求考生站在今天的角度,以自己的18歲寫給2035年的某一個18歲,這也是一篇想象作文,它不僅要求有想象力,還要求有思考力,你必須對當下所處的時代作出回答,還必須對17年之后的時代作出想象。這兩道作文題別開一些生面,值得肯定,但因為太過接近時代的熱點問題,容易被猜中、套用和宿構,影響公平公正,也就是沒有做好“既要出乎意料之外,又要在情理之中”,留下了遺憾。

                        第三條,好的作文題都要求對時代有所關切,但又要保持一定距離,且還必須引導學生對自己所處的時代、所熟悉的生活,進行獨立思考。注意,是獨立思考,而不是人云亦云,更不是言不由衷,閉著眼睛說瞎話。這就要求作文題,呈開放態勢,不要作過多的暗示性的指向,尤其不要在價值取向上設限阻攔,于此方能打開學生思維的閘門。可以這樣說,好的作文題,都是那種看上去容易上手,寫起來又不那么容易,細想想還有豐富的人文含量的題目。這樣的作文題才能積極引導學生多說話,說真話,說實話,說良心話,說負責任的話,思考生活、生命、歷史文化、科技人文……等廣泛而深刻的問題,能“我手寫我心”。按照這個標準來看,2018年的八個作文題,都不算好。或者思維受限,非此即彼,或者太過靠近時代熱點,或者難以激發學生思維。從這個意義上來看,2018年第十六屆“葉圣陶杯”新作文大賽兩道作文題,我認為就出得不錯。請看這兩道題:

                        第一題:以“別著急”為題(或在理解題意的基礎上自擬題目),寫一篇文章。

                        第二題:一般人都覺得,癖和癡都是性格上的毛病,可是明人張岱卻說:“人無癖不可與交,以其無深情也;人無癡不可與交,以其無真氣也。” 大致意思是:不能和沒有任何癖好(毛病)的人交往,因為其沒有深沉的感情;不能和沒有半點傻氣的人交往,因為其缺少純真的氣質。對此,你怎么看?你的生活中有沒有遇到過因為“癖”或“癡”而顯得有趣、“可交”的人?請據此寫一篇作文。

                        這兩道題,你絕對猜不中,這就是“出乎意料”,它保證了作文考試的公平性,細想想,“又在情理之中”,因為“別著急”對時代的激進有所關切,“癖與癡”又關切著生命的思考,對學生做人是有啟示的。這兩道題,還不像一般的模擬題,容易落入俗套,它不同凡響,幾乎完全規避了應試作文的所有套路,讓你的“有所準備”“英雄無用武之地”。“別著急”看上去似乎是要寫故事,但細一想,這里面又有深刻的辯證思考;“癖與癡”看上去是要辯證思維,但率真地寫下去,又可以大膽地講故事,寫人物,這樣的命題就脫離了作文命題的“老路”,讓人耳目一新,特別有新意。關鍵是這兩道題,能引導學生對當下所處的時代和如何做人“有所思”,學生會想:對“快”與“慢”,到底應該怎樣取舍?“快”不好,“慢”就一定好嗎?恐怕也未必。“癖與癡”到底應該怎樣看?有真氣、有個性,固然是好,那沒有“癖”和“癡”,做一個簡單的人,一個普通人,就不好嗎?這就能打開學生的思維閘門……因此,我相信,這兩道題,能引爆學生的聯想和想象,能激活他們的思考,能讓他們積極地去尋找時代前行的方向和生命本應有的豐富多彩。能做到這樣,還不是“好”的作文題嗎?

                         

                        2018年8月1日   蓬雀居

                        發于《中華讀書報》

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